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King Malcolm II of Scotland

In the 10th century Scotland had not yet become a stable, single kingdom but still had a number of sub-kingdoms and independent or semi-independent territories within it. In 990 AD Malcolm macKenneth was created king of Strathclyde and Cumbria by his father, the king of Scotland, but he was deposed when Kenneth II was killed, regaining the position two years later. In 1005 Malcolm fought and killed the father-and-son rulers of Scotland, Kenneth III and Giric II, at Monzievaird, near Loch Earn and became king of Scotland. He reigned until his death at eighty years of age at Glamis Castle in 1034 and the throne passed to his grandson, Duncan. Duncan's reign lasted until, after a number of poorly conducted campaigns against the Norse and the English, he was killed on 15 August 1040 at Pitgaveny by an army allied to Thorfinn of Orkney under the command of the mormaer of Moray, Macbeth. A peaceful and prosperous period followed. However, with the support of Edward the Confessor, Duncan's son Malcolm accompanied an invading force under Siward of Northumbria and fought Macbeth at Dunsinnan, north of Scone, on 27 July 1054. Victory gave Malcolm the kingdom of Strathclyde, but Macbeth retained the Gaelic-speaking north until his death in battle at Lumphanan, west of Aberdeen, on 15 August 1057. His stepson Lulach Fatuus (the Fool) was elected to succeed him, but was slain at Essie on 17 March 1058, leaving Malcolm III the overall ruler of Scotland.

See also: Edward the Confessor; King Malcolm III